A typical geological expedition, 1880

Chain Coral
Chain Coral

Despite the sad circumstances of bereavement that had overtaken both Thomas and the Robertson family, Thomas’ abiding dedication to his all-consuming hobby of geology and palaeontology kept him busy through the summer of 1880.  His diary entry for May 26th – 27th gives a great deal of detail about an expedition accompanied by Mr Shrubsole of the Chester Society of Natural Science.

The 1881 census shows George Shrubsole aged 53 owner of a Chemist’s shop employing an assistant and two boys, living at 50, Northgate Street Chester with his wife Fanny, aged 50 and their sons George, 16, and Alfred, 14.  His assistant William Jones, 22, also lived in the house, and there was a General Servant, Eliza Edwards, aged 27.  George senior had been born in Faversham, Kent, and Fanny in Preston, Lancs.  George Shrubsole was sometime Chairman of the Geological section of the Chester Society, and a Fellow of the Geological Society.

I include a longer extract than usual, demonstrating Thomas’ very lively and quite elegant prose style, particularly the vignette of the confrontation with the irate farmer and the fishermen, both illustrating the slight tension between English and Welsh speakers and the incomprehension of the locals meeting these devoted collectors of the new-found and relatively suspect pursuit of geology and fossil hunting.  The Oxford confrontation between Huxley and Bishop Wilberforce had taken place only 20 years earlier, and the topic was still by no means resolved.

May 26 Wednesday  [1880] I left here on route for Glyn Ceiriog [SJ203382]. I started from here by 5.30 am in a trap to Corwen, where I arrived by 6.30. Left Corwen by the 6.50 train and got to Llangollen by 7.15. I crossed Llangollen Bridge for the first time, and went through the town, which I thought looked very clean and nice. I passed the front of Plasnewydd, well known as the residence where the ‘Ladies of Llangollen’ spent their quiet lives. …

From Plasnewydd I had a very steep road to go up; it was almost as steep as the roof of a house. I stopped to rest and look back occasionally over the beautiful vale which was well worth the climb to see. There was the town, snugly nestled by the Dee, withy Castell Dinas Bran towering above the vale, backed up by the wonderful rocks of Eglwyseg.

I got to the top of the hill by the farmhouse of Penlan …I soon began to descend the very steep winding slope leading into the vale of the Ceiriog. My first view of it pleased me very much; it looked like as if the river had no outlet, and I thought it ran the reverse way to what it did until I consulted my map. I got first to the church which is … perched on the steep slope near some straggling houses which forms the village of what is called Llansantffraid Glyn Ceiriog. … About a mile from the church I came to the New Inn, which is situated by the river and at the terminus of the tramway. The New Inn is at the centre of a modern village, and surrounded by slate quarries. 

I was at the New Inn by 9 o’clock where I was to meet Mr. Shrubsole from Chester…… Mr. Shrubsole arrived at 11, so that I was now in my element. We were both very much excited when we met, and I in particular meeting a good friend in a ‘happy valley’ which was new to me, but which I long had wished to see. Mr. Shrubsole had been here before. We were soon equipped with bags and hammers , ready for hard work at fossils, for which we had here met. We crossed Pont-dwl-wern, and turned to the right up the side of the river, along the side of a wood. I was delighted, and in capital trim. Our hammers soon went clink clank and soon we had before us corals, shells, and fragments of Trilobites. I soon saw that we were working in the upper beds of the Bala rocks. We got many interesting things here, then we went upwards, although it was downwards in the beds until we got to a wall where it was built of blocks of limestone. I saw a block with curious white markings on it, and while examining it, I was asking Mr. Shrubsole where he found the chain coral when here before; his answer was that he could not exactly tell. I was particularly anxious to find some of it. I called Mr. Shrubsole’s attention to the markings in the block, which puzzled me as they were new to me. He gave an exulting shout which startled me; and clink clank went his hammer, all I could get out of him was ‘Chain coral!’ which at once made me quite excited. We were at work knocking off chip for chip, which we bagged, while Mr. Shrubsole teased me for not knowing chain coral.

Our fun was soon interrupted by a loud voice, and on looking round we saw a gaunt, tall, ill featured man coming up the road towards us, with quick, long strides, and evidently very excited. He came up almost breathless, and at once shouted, ‘Stop, stop gentlemens! Stop that! Don’t you know gentlemens that you are damaging my wall, you must not do that. I know what you be wantin – you be after the shells.’ I mildly replied thast we were, and that I had come from Bala to examine the Calch llwyd (grey lime) of Glyn Ceiriog, so as to compare it with the Calch llwyd of Bala; and to do that I must try and find some shells, and that I would be sorry to go back to my Bala friends without being able to find any. The Welshman looked at me for a little, then said ‘You be from Bala then. I said ‘Yes’. ‘Well you be talk Welsh’. I answered ‘Je, tipyn bach’ (yes a little). I watched his austere features gradually relax into a smile, then he exclaimed, ‘Oh gentlemens you not be the bad peoples I see come here from Manchester, them be very bad, they be knockin down my walls gentlemens.’ Mr. Shrubsole who watched the drama at once chimed in ‘Yes, the people from Manchester are a rough lot.’ Mr. Jones (as we learned) seemed pleased, and when Mr. Shrubsole added, ‘But we are not all like the Manchester people’ Mr. Jones at once said ‘No I see you be not like them, they be very bad indeed.’ I asked now if I might try for shells, because I wished to be able to tell the Bala people all about Glyn Ceiriog. Mr. Jones quickly answered with great animation, ‘Yes, sir, you get anything you want and go anywhere.’ I asked who was the landlord. Mr. Jones at once said ‘It’s my own land, it’s my freehold, and that place there where you will find an old lime kiln is the freehold of my uncle Richard Jones, and gentlemens, I give you leave to go anywhere you like on my land and on my uncle’s land.’ I thanked him very much and got a deal of information from him as he led us up to a kiln where he formerly burned the lime rock, which is the equivalent of the Bala limestone. He told us that it was 29 years since he had burned any; that about 30 years ago he sent it to the railway viaducts of Llangollen and Chirk to make cement for building, and that it was better than any other lime.

We worked hard near the old kiln and we were quite excited with our finds – beautiful weathered and solid chain corals stared at us; Omphyma, Petraia, and shells were bagged, until our bags and pockets were full. Near the kiln I saw a beautiful patch of the Orchis mascula. About 4 o’clock we returned to the inn well pleased with our bag, and ready for a good substantial meat tea which was soon ready for us.

After tea we put our fossils past, and made ready for another voyage of discovery. We went up the north side of the river. The valley was very narrow, with very steep slopes, covered with young larch plantations, where I could see the turtle doves flying from tree to tree. We got to the thick bed of felstone. This felstone had been quarried and sent to the potteries as ‘china stone’, but it did not answer, so that the works were abandoned. About two miles up we came to a little hamlet near Pont Menbion, at the foot of a little brook called Deirw which comes down a romantic dingle from Nantyr. It came on to rain rather heavy, so that we returned with a few minerals.

We spent the rest of the evening watching the young quarryman playing at football, and in reading.  We made up our plans for the next day’s work, and went to bed on a light supper. I was awoke next morning by a peculiar monotonous noise, and on looking out, I saw that the noise was caused by a heavy rain. I could see the river rushing down red with mud, and in a high flood, while pat, pat, pat went the pouring rain. It was a bad prospect, but I was thankful for the first day’s work, and content as I had the chain coral.

We enjoyed a good breakfast and read the Geological Journal, but still it rained, and the wind sighed through the trees. We next watched the idlers who were taking shelter in doorways, and who were making themselves as happy as they could.  At 12 o’clock the rain ceased gradually, so we sallied forth with our hammers and bags. We went up the wooded slope from Pont-dol-wern until we got to an old lime kiln almost hidden by young larch and brambles. Here I worked eagerly at the upper limestone bed, which was difficult as we could only get pieces here and there. I got several fossils, the most interesting being a beautiful Ischadites, and a Raphistoma, also a poor Orthisena and a nice Philodictya fucoides. From this we went up through the land of Richard Jones to Mynyd Fron-frys [SJ214371], famed for fossils, but we only got common species. We next crossed over to large quarries which are in the Tarannon shale, and which had been at one time extensively worked for slate. On the way I found the ‘Hirnant Grit’ in loose blocks.

We next followed the Oswestry road to near Nant Iorwerth having a fine view down the broad valley which extends along the Ceiriog from the New Inn to Pont Fadog. The sides of the hills are well-wooded and dotted with **** like farm houses. We turned up Nant Iorwerth [SJ364217]to a quarry where we got shells plentiful, among which were several mussels. A little higher in the beds we got to the Bala limestone bed where we got the chain coral Omphyma and Petraia, etc. Our bags were quite full, and even our pockets, so that we had to carry enough, and return to our inn, well pleased.

When crossing the bridge we observed a solitary fisherman fishing a little below the bridge.  Mr. Shrubsole asked him if he had any fish – no answer, but he stared hard at us. I thought he did not understand, so I said to him in Welsh as short as I could pysgod (fish), he shook his head and said ‘Dim’ (no); with the effort he took his line out of the water, and what did we see but a twin with a shoemaker’s waxed thread at the end of it instead of gut, and a monster worm on the hook. I did not wonder at his lack of success. Going up through the village the people stared hard at us from the doors, I could see the heads of the people half out of doors peeping at us. We met our friend John Jones of the previous day who put on the best smile he could, but which was only a hoax grin as he asked us if we had been successful, and he was very much pleased when we answered in the affirmative.

We got packed up, had a substantial tea, settled with the landlord, David Foulkes, and seated ourselves in the tram car. This car is very light, being only covered with canvas, and the same on the sides which can be drawn back at pleasure when fine, so as to have a view of the surrounding countryside. It is drawn by a horse, and runs smoothly along. The tram has a fall all the way from the New Inn all the way to Pont-faen, the terminus. We paid a shilling each for the tram ride. We were but a short time seated when the bugle sounded and off we went down the side of the Ceiriog. At Pont Fadog we picked up a passenger. Pont Fadog is a little hamlet where the tramway crosses the river. A mile or two lower down we passed a church, then we saw where the shale and mountain limestone meets. We next passed along the side of Chirk Castle park, where I saw unusually large elm trees and fine old hawthorns. I was very much pleased to see the viaduct and aqueduct of such fine proportions crossing the valley. When crossing over the splendid viaduct which spans the Dee we got a good view of the aqueduct which carries over the canal, both viaducts being the work of Mr. Robertson my employer. I parted with my friend Mr. Shrubsole at Ruabon, and I arrived home in good spirits and delighted with my trip which was very satisfactory.

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Realities of Victorian Life and Death: 1880

geograph-608425-by-richard-croft

It is little wonder that we can sometimes view Victorian culture as being inclined to melancholy and mourning.  Death and dangerous illness were always nearby, and no class of society was exempt from their touch.  In the first few months of 1880, when Thomas had been a widower for less than a year, tragedy struck the Robertson family and the staff of Palé.

First, Alexander Sherriff, the husband of Mr. and Mrs. Robertson’s second daughter Annie, died at the family’s London house; they had been married less than eight years.  She had become a widow at 25.

February 8th Sunday   Mr. Sherriff died at Lancaster Gate London aged 32. This has cast quite a gloom over us all, but especially Mrs. Sherriff and Mrs. Robertson. Mr. Sherriff to my knowledge was most honourable and straightforward, free from all mischief making, and deservedly popular. He used to come to see my collection, and was always amiable and humble in manners.

Within ten days Mrs. Robertson’s brother John Dean fell ill:

Feb. 18th, Wednesday   Mr. Dean took Scarlet fever, which has cast another gloom over Palé.   Feb 25th  Mr. Dean in a most critical condition.

A member of Palé staff was the next victim, but fortunately Joh Dean survived.

March 8th Monday Miss Jarvis the head housemaid died of the fever after 4 days’ illness. She was a quiet, good and industrious servant, whose untimely death all deplore.

Mr. Dean, I am thankful to say is past danger, he came out of doors today for the first time March 19th.

Thomas’ family escaped the illnesses on the estate that winter, and so Little Mary Emily began her education, just nine months after the death of her own mother.

March 23rd Mary Emily’s first day at school.

These are mournful journal entries, the only ones until May of that year, but they bring sharply into focus he realities of life and death in the nineteenth century.  The rest of the year becomes more cheerful!

1879 Carrying on with life

A train on the Bala - Ffestiniog railway
A train on the Bala – Ffestiniog railway.      Photo J.S. Gilks from http://www.forgottenrelics.co.uk/tunnels/cwmprysor.html

The journal entries after the death of Thomas’ wife Mary in June 1879 almost all concern geology and walking expeditions.  Reading more closely, it is clear that his friends and acquaintances accompanied him on days out, perhaps sensing that his lifelong love of the natural world and geological studies in particular would be the means of his coping with bereavement.  It is also clear that he must have been confident in the care of his young children during his absences, either by the maid living in at the Garden House or with staff at Palé.

The family at Palé and a local friend were the first to encourage Thomas to go on an expedition.  John Dean was brother of Mrs. Robertson, and a frequent companion to Thomas over the years.  I have not identified Mr. Brandt.  Inevitably, the day involved geological and botanical exploration. See here for Cwm Prysor:

July 2nd  I went with Mr. Dean and Mr. Brandt from Bala to Cwm Prysor [SH757368] on the Bala and Festiniog line. …… During the day I examined with great interest the ash and slate rocks of the Llandeilo and Lingula beds. I got no fossils, but I brought specimens of rocks and minerals. I only got salix repens and galium boreale in the plant way. 

Later in July two friends from the Chester Society of Natural Science took him on an expedition.

July 23rd  I had a day at Hafod-y-Calch near Corwen with my friends Messrs Shrubsole and Palin of Chester. We were very successful in getting fossils and enjoyed ourselves very much. Both these friends were very kind to me.

By August, Thomas was in sufficiently good spirits to lead an expedition of a local Scientific Society:

August 25th Monday I went to Bala and acted as guide to the members of the Wrexham Society of Natural Science. I took them up pat Wenalt to Cornelan. Here we lunched, and I then showed them the first ash bed with the Orthis alternate zone. We next examined the beds of Brynbedwog, where we got plenty of fossils. I next took them down the side of Afon Cymmerig to Gelli Grin. Here we found fossils. We got into Bala by 4.30 pm, and had a most substantial meat tea at the Plas Coch Hotel. I was very highly honoured by the whole party, had lamb to carve. I sat by the side of my old and valued friend Mr. Bennion Acton of Wrexham.

As we read between the lines, it is touching to see Thomas’ friends rallying round him in bereavement, recognising that his dedication to geology and natural history would be the best means of helping him through the difficult summer months of 1879.

Read the full account of his expeditions and entries for the rest of the year here.

 

1879 A Widower at 37

Mary Ruddy nee Blackhall 1841 -1879
Mary Ruddy nee Blackhall 1841 -1879

By 1879 Thomas had established himself for ten years as Head Gardener at Palé.  His new wife Mary had accompanied him from Derbyshire to his post at Llandderfel, and their children Thomas Alexander aged 10, William Pamplin aged 7 and Mary Emily aged 6 were growing up at the Garden House on the Palé estate.  Then, in the spring and early summer of 1879 a tragedy struck.

1879  Up till April I have nothing particular to relate, except that my dear wife has been very ill, which causes me a great deal of anxiety. I have geologised a little and fished some to pass the time.

June 9th, Monday 11o’clock. My beloved wife died at a little after 11 am. This has been to me the most distressing thing it has ever been my lot to bear; for two months I have slept but little. I never seemed to be asleep, for I could hear the least movement during the night. Her illness was rapid consumption, so that she suffered no pain, but dropt off calmly to a better world. Mrs. Robertson was most kind and anxious about her. Mrs Pryce of Bronwylfa brought her a preparation of her own make, Mrs Richards of Fronheulog was also most kind, and all my neighbours showed the most sympathy and kindness to me during her illness.

June 12th My dear wife was buried; the neighbours showed their sympathy by coming from all parts, and by carrying the bier all the way. The village people had drawn their blinds and the shops their shutters, all of which was so kind of them, especially for a stranger. I have lost a kind and feeling mother of children, a wife but seldom equalled, a quiet living, good natured and reserved companion, but beloved by those who knew her.   Mrs. Robertson in writing to me said that I little knew how much she and her family respected her, and how deeply they felt her loss. Her old and respected friend Mrs. Owen was with her in her last moments, and showed her all respect and kindness. [Probably Elizabeth Owen, Housekeeper of Palé, originally from Devon, and aged 61 in 1879 – ed.]

Thomas and Mary outside the Garden House, Palé
Thomas and Mary outside the Garden House, Palé

 

Mary’s death left Thomas with three young children of 10 and under. He does not comment in the diary about how he managed to look after them, do his work in the gardens, and continue with his geological and botanical excursions. In the Wales census of 1881 a servant, Jane Richards aged 21 was living in the house. Mrs. Robertson of Palé Hall probably ensured that there was enough support for the children. Thomas gives no clue in the diary about the children’s reactions to their loss of a mother at an early age – a relatively common experience among Victorian children.

The Chester Society of Natural Science, Literature and Art

screenshot-2016-09-17-16-24-31

The Chester Society of Natural Science  was inaugurated in 1871 by Charles Kingsley, then Dean of Chester Cathedral. (Yes, he was also the author of The Water Babies). Its original subject matter was Geological, Botanical and Zoological, but further scientific subjects were quickly added, and by the end of the 1890’s Photography literature and art had been added.  The Grosvenor Museum in Chester had been founded in 1885 and became the home of the Society, whose artefacts continue to form the basis of the collections.  From its earliest days the Society began to forge links with other scientific and natural history societies in a wide area.

I have not been able to find any evidence that Thomas was ever a full or associate member of the Society, but his connection with it is very clear.  By 1876-7 he was already guiding parties from the Society and its corresponding local groups in geological and botanical expeditions- see here.  I believe that Thomas’ connection with the Society was initially through George Dickson, Chester Nurseryman who was responsible for ‘headhunting’ Thomas for the Palé post, and who as an early member of the Society.

Once again Thomas’ habitual ability to be in the right place at the right time came into play.  Thomas McKenny Hughes, Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge University became the President of the Chester Society, as seen in the letterhead pictured above.  Probably the greatest area of geological interest and debate in the British Isles was right on Thomas Ruddy’s doorstep.  The identification of the relationship and dating of the Silurian and Cambrian rocks centred on the Bala beds of fossils, those very fossils which Ruddy had been collecting, identifying and scrupulously labelling over the last few years.  For forty years dispute had raged at the highest levels of Geological science between followers of Adam Sedgwick, mentor and Professorial predecessor of McKenny Hughes, and the man who had become his arch rival, Roderick Murchison.  No wonder that Professor Hughes and the members of the geological section of the Chester Society quickly identified Ruddy as a valuable resource of knowledge and presence literally ‘on the ground’ at that much discussed and disputed location.

For a detailed analysis of the Cambrian / Silurian controversy and Thomas Ruddy’s relationship see here .

1876 Geology to the fore!

Tomen y Bala © John Darch via Geograph http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2134566
Tomen y Bala © John Darch via Geograph
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2134566

By 1876, seven years after coming to Palé, Thomas was becoming widely known as a serious and respected amateur geologist.  It is not clear how he had achieved this position of respect and trust, but there must have been hours of patient study and days of fieldwork in order to reach this status.  Particularly important is his connection with the Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge, Thomas McKenny Hughes, who had been elected to the Chair in 1873, in succession to Adam Sedgwick.  Through this connection with Professor Hughes, who by the middle of 1876 Thomas R is calling ‘my friend’, TR is connected to the brightest stars of the beginnings of modern geology, Sedgwick and Charles Lyell and through Lyell, to Darwin himself, who did not die until 1882.

The following extract is a continuous transcription of the 1876 journal with no omissions.  Geology is to the forefront, there is no mention of the family, the Robertsons and Palé or even of Thomas’ greatest friend, William Pamplin.

July 20th Thursday The members of the Geologists Association and friends to the number of 34 came to Llandderfel station where there were seven conveyances waiting for them to take them to Llangynog. I had an invitation to go with them, so that I got ready. Mr. Davies acted as guide, so that he brought them to see my collection of fossils. I was glad to get introduced to some leading geologists such as Professor McKenny Hughes of Cambridge, Prof. John Morris, London University, Dr. Hicks of London, Mr. Hopkinson and other minor stars.

There were several ladies in the party. I gave them some refreshments, showed them my fossils which highly interested them, and took them afterwards to Brynselwrn quarry to get some graptolites. We next went up the Berwyns to the phosphate mine which was examined with interest and then to Llangynog where there was an excellent lunch ready for us at the expense of Mr. Doveston of ‘The Nursery’ near Oswestry whose two daughters were with us.

All were happy and enjoyed the lunch. I had to carve ducks, which I managed very well. Several amusing speeches were made after dinner. We also had Geological addresses outside in the evening. The day was very warm. The party proceeded to Oswestry in conveyances from there and I came home by those returning to Bala. I felt very much pleased to be with such high geologists. See paper for report of it [Paper not found – ed.] I may add that I had with me Mr. Barrois of Lille, France, Mr. & Mrs. Barbec of Pinner, Watford.

July 31st Monday. I went to Bala to act as guide for the members of the Chester Society of Natural Science. The morning was wet, but we faced the hill by Wenalt [SH927340], then to Brynbedog [SH931 330], lunched and went on to Bryn–y-Gwyn [SH934330], where many fossils were got. From there to Gelli Grin [SH936331], and back to Bala where a first-rate tea was ready. I made the acquaintance of several new geologists, amongst which was Mr. Shone of Chester, and my old friends Mr. Shrubsole and Professor Hughes. All the party enjoyed themselves very much.

Sept 11 Monday I had a visit of Mr. More of Dublin, Miss More his sister from Malvern and Dr. Stanley Haynes of Malvern also Mr. Shrubsole and his two boys. Mr. Shrubsole spent a happy day with me after we got quit of the others.

Oct 13 Friday The Revds. John Peter of Bala and Wynne Williams from Fronhenlog paid me a visit to see my collections. Mr. Williams said he could sit with me for hours and he was highly interested in the statuette from Wroxeter.

Nov 16th Thursday I went to Bala to advise the Local Board members about Tomen-y-Bala [A Norman motte, ed.]  My friend Dr. Hughes gave me dinner, and took me afterwards to see Fronderw quarry.

Nov 21st I went geologizing to Cynwyd and found three or four perfect Calymenei – the first I got perfect of the trilobiltes.  See here.

By Dwergenpaartje - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17289888
By Dwergenpaartje – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17289888

It happened that Thomas had brought his interest in geology to just the right part of the country and just the right time in history to play a significant part in the exploration of the geology of his local area.  In 1879 with the encouragement and mentoring Professor Hughes, Thomas published an article On the Upper Part of the Cambrian (Sedgwick) and the Base of the Silurian in North Wales in the foremost academic geological journal, the journal of the Geological Society of London.  This was a monumental achievement for a self taught geologist who left school at 14.

A local expert 1875

Screenshot 2016-08-15 16.25.07
Hibernating doormouse

It is now six years since Thomas became Head Gardener at Palé.  His journal entries are scant for the year, but most are concerned with the various collections and hobbies he was by now pursuing very earnestly.  It is clear that his reputation was spreading far and wide, so that he was brought objects of interest, received invitations as a judge at agricultural events and began to receive the first few of a number of international visitors to see his collections.

January 28 Thursday Mr. Robertson came to see my fossils.

Thomas was very particular about displaying and labelling his fossil collection.  I assume he now had the fossils displayed to his satisfaction, and was proud to show them to his employer.  Later, in 1889 during Queen Victoria’s visit, Henry Robertson’s son Henry Beyer Robertson allowed Thomas to lay out his fossils in the fruit room, and he was able to show them to the Queen herself.

April 29th Thursday I had a dormouse brought to me from Tyfos, the first one I have seen in Wales. It was found rolled up dormant inside a lump of leaves, which were glued together.  I am unable to discover from where the dormouse was brought, or by whom, but Thomas was obviously known as the man who would welcome this rarity.

August 19th Thursday I was at Ruthin as judge at the flower show held in the castle grounds. The show was very good and well attended. Mr More of Dublin here to see me. A [Alexander] .G. More is an excellent botanist and ornithologist and author of a very useful book on birds. He was much interested in my collection of eggs.  Information on A.G. More here.

How did A.G. More come to know of Thomas, and visit him?  The most likely answer lies with his friend William Pamplin, whose contacts as a naturalist continued to be wide-ranging after he retired from London to Wales.

Sept 8th Wednesday Mr. Pamplin, his nephew Mr. Williams and I went to the top of Aran [SH867242] We climbed up from Lanwchllyn along the ridge until we got to the top of Aran Benllyn, from which we crossed over to the other peak, Aran Mawdy [Aran Fawddwy on OS] The day got very foggy when we got to the top so that we got only glimpses now and then. When clear we got splendid views. The top is rough with large square blocks of ash rock. We went down to Drws-y-nant station [SH840259] in a rain which wet us a bit; having some time to stay we went to the inn named Howel Dda for refreshments.  A first mention of William Pamplin Williams, nephew of William Pamplin, who would become Thomas Ruddy’s brother-in-law when William’s sister became the widower Thomas’ second wife in 1881.

December 31st Friday I have been working very hard at the fossils during the summer. I have been to Gelli Grin, Rhiwlas, Aberhirnant Cynwyd and Llandrillo in search of Bala fossils. I found many of great interest

I have made some new friends such as. Davies (D C Davies) who is a good geologist and author. He lives at Ebnal Lodge near Oswestry. Mr. Davies very kindly lent me ‘Davidson’s Brachiopoda’ and ‘Sedgwicks’ book (see here) so as to enable me to name my fossils. Mr Robinson of Shrewsbury who gave me coins and a statuette of the ‘Sybil of Cumaena’ found at Viroconium or Wroxeter; an old Roman city. This statuette is of great interest. Mr Shrubsole, a Chester geologist and Chairman of the geological section of the Chester Society of Natural Science. Mr. Shrubsole has been urging me on strongly to geologize the Bala beds of the district.

Again, it is difficult to verify how Thomas made the acquaintance of these new friends, but the answer may lie with the Nurseryman George Dickson, of Chester who first introduced Thomas to Palé.  George Dickson was a prominent member of the Chester Society of Natural Science.  Thomas never actually joined that august body, but he led many geological and botanical expeditions for them in later years, and won their prized Kingsley Medal in 1889.