Homecoming to a tragedy, 1898

Few photographs exist of Frances Harriet Ruddy, neé Williams. This is apparently taken when she was a young woman.

As mentioned in my previous post, Thomas had hardly ever, perhaps never been away overnight from his family since his marriage to Frances Harriet. The events that were to unfold on his return were therefore particularly shocking.

I got home here to find poor Frances looking quite ill with what we thought was severe bilious attack.  She was very sorry to be ill on my arrival home, for she would have liked to hear all about my visit if well enough.

Tuesday the 26th.  I got the doctor (Mr Williams) to come and see Frances. He said she had a chill and inflammation, so she had better keep to bed for a day or two, and that she would be alright in a few days.

Wednesday the 27th. Francis fairly well. I at Pen. [Home of Mr Pamplin, Frances’uncle]  Frances weak on Thursday. 

Friday. Henry had his report to say he had passed in the first division the Matriculation Exam of the University of Wales.  His mother was much pleased and complimented him. Willie came in the evening for his holidays; he had a week, most of which he spent in the Isle of Man.

Saturday the 30th. Francis apparently better. Dr here every day at my wish, because it is more satisfactory.

The 31st. Dear Frances pretty well until the evening when she became delirious. She had great thirst the previous night; I gave her milk and soda water frequently, and champagne occasionally.

Monday, August 1. Dear Frances delirious all night, and dreadfully exhausted in the morning. When the doctor came he discovered that there was an internal rupture of the stomach; this was terribly sad news for me, for he held out no hope of recovery. It was a fearful shock to all of us, and God took her from us at a 12:45 o’clock midday. She was quite unconscious, and died with the bright smile on her face. Mrs Cleveley the Coachman’s wife and Mrs Davies who washes for us were with her all the morning until she died. We were all suddenly plunged in deep sorrow, a sorrow which never can be forgotten. My dear wife was a most devoted mother to her children and a wife who could scarcely be equalled in her sphere of life. She is well and truthfully described in Proverbs, chapter 31 , verses 27 and 28.

Frances sang as part of her Uncle William Pamplin’s choir ‘Sacred Melodies’. She is probably standing extreme right (unconfirmed)

Willie returned to his work in the evening. Mrs Cleveley kindly made room for the two boys, Henry and Alfred to sleep at her house, and I slept or tried to sleep in their room. We had a sad house.

So, with terrible suddenness, Thomas became a widower for a second time, leaving the children of their marriage: Henry, 16, Frances Harriet (Francie) 14, Caroline Elizabeth (Carrie) 13, Amelia Agnes (Millie) 11 and Alfred Williams (Alfie) 8.

A new Interest with an old Friend 1898

Thomas Mellard Reade Liverpool University Library.
No copyright infringement intended

Thomas was always keen to engage with a new interest, often when encouraged by a friend who was researching a different area of geology or topography from Thomas’ own Silurian interest. In 1892 he had assisted A.C. Nicholson of Oswestry, Shropshire, in details of Nicholson’s paper on glacial deposits, thus moving on many millions of years in geological time. Now, in 1898 a new interest appears, spurred by his friend Mellard Reade -the research of hilltop perhistoric fortifications, a topic that would continue to absorb Ruddy for several years following.

Saturday the 23rd [July]  I left for Bala at 2.10 where I was met by my friend Mr Mellard Reade and his stepdaughter, Miss Taylor to take me to Cerrig-y-Druidion to be their guest until Monday afternoon.On arrival at Penybryn, their lodgings, we had a comfortable tea, which I much enjoyed.  Penybryn is situated on the bank a short way from the Saracens Head inn. There is a Methodist chapel and a few houses between Penybryn and the Saracen with the brook which falls into the Ceirw river. After tea Mr Reade and I went to see the ancient encampment of Penygaer, locally called Penymount.

After some research, I estimate this to be the encampment now known as Caer Caeadog, SH967478.

Caer Caradog, photographed by Eirian Evans, via Geograph

 Thomas gives a detailed description: The camp is of nearly circular form; about three and a half acres in extent and is surrounded by a deep trench, 6 feet in depth; the excavated shale and earth thrown up to make an embankment on the inner edge of the trench.  The solid shale 7 yards wide is left to form an entrance over the trench on the east side; another entrance being left on the west side.  The ground slopes moderately steep on the south east to west; there is but little slope from the north west to the east Mr Reade stepped the ground and I measured it with my yardstick; we made it 178 yards east to west by 143 yards north to south. The surface is glassy and moderately even. I could not see any water near. Part of the trench is through shale rock. I think there must have been a wall round it.  There is now a stone wall through the middle of it north to south and walls are everywhere near it. It overlooks an old road, 150 yards off.

We had supper on our return and spent the rest of the evening happily together. I went to sleep at the Saracens Head because there was no room for me at the farmhouse of Penybryn.

The Saracen’s Head, now closed.

The following day, Sunday the 24th, Ruddy and Reade went for a walk on the hill of Rhos Gwern Nannau.  It was a little cooler on the top, but the sun was very trying and I felt very thirsty. We had an extensive views from the top; West of us were Aran and the Areigs, North the Snowdonian mountains.  There were interesting glacial terraces on the side of the hill one above another with great depth of drift. The boulders were of the Arenig type.  

After tea they walked through the village, making geological and botanical observations as they went.. The road we followed was evidently the one used before the Holyhead road was made,  all along the road in the wall and on the roadside were large and small boulders of conglomerate which puzzled us much; I have never seen such course conglomerate anywhere else in Wales. I first thought it might be a nodular ash rock which Ramsey describes in Vol III Geological Survey Page 93; but the boulders of the conglomerate were too plentiful to be from inconsiderable patches of ash rock, and they varied in composition from rather fine water worn pebbles to pebbles the size of eggs

I found the Teesdalia plentifully on a wall beyond the village on the Denbigh road, and the birdsfoot (Ornithopus) in several placesLipidium Smithii crow-wheat Hypericum humifusa, and Bog Asphodel on the way. After supper, we had much to talk about until bedtime. The walk was very enjoyable.

On Monday the 25th the two men continued their expeditions in the local area, taking note of the geology at every turn. Just on the south side of the stream there is gravel mound of much interest; this is Mr Reade wished me to see.  It is composed of layers of fine sand and gravel of glacial origin.  The top of the mound is 900 feet above sea level, and the mound is 35 feet in height. There are several others of the same sort, and one at Tynyfelin on the Glasfryn side.  I found the water-worn pebbles large and small of Bala shale, Arenig ashes conglomerate etc. There were several large Arenig ash boulders on the side of the road crossing the Meadows.  

We returned to be in time for dinner, and after dinner we all left in the trap for Corwen.  We had a very pleasant drive of 10 miles along the Holyhead Road all the way and got to Corwen at 4 o’clock; then had tea and after some shopping I was driven to the station in time for the 5 o’clock train where my kind friends took leave of me and returned to Cerrig y Druidion.

Arenig Ash rock, photo Earthwise, British Geological Survey. No copyright infringement intended.

Thomas rarely, if ever, left his family home overnight. This short trip with a trusted geological friend was a rare opportunity for such enjoyment. Little did he know the tragedy that he would find infolding at home.

1896: Days Out

Llandudno pier in the Edwardian era – a little later than our report.

The journal for 1896 demonstrates the growing propensity of late Victorian society to indulge in days away from work, and the Ruddy family’s more expansive lifestyle in this decade reflects a society which is confident and growing in affluence. Thomas provides two very detailed accounts of days of relaxation, from which I shall draw extracts.

A day trip to Llandudno

Thursday June the 25th. All of us went by an excursion train to Llandudno. We were up very early and all were excited about going. We left the station about 6.30, the Cleveley family and we got carriage to ourselves. The elderflower was very showy all the way along the route. We saw Denbigh Castle ruins perched upon the limestone crag and the Cathedral of St Asaph very distinctly. I was much pleased to see the ivy-covered ruins of Rhuddlan Castle when nearing Rhyl. … As we passed along to Deganwy we could see the tubular railway bridge and suspension bridge for a roadway spanning the river Conway. The river widens to a broad estuary above and below the town.

We arrived at Llandudno at 9:15. The children were all excitement to go digging in the sands, but as the tide was up to the promenade, there were no signs visible. To pass the time we went on to the Great Orme at Happy Valley, all rather on the rocky heights near the Camera Obscura. Here we had some sandwiches and enjoyed the beautiful views of sea and land….The Happy Valley is a sheltered spot shut out from the town where there are amusements and other recreations. The Great Orme is a delightful place and it is happy hunting ground for a botanist.

We spent some time at the Camera Obscura and then Francis and the little ones returned to the town so as to get on the sands as the tide was going out. Henry and I commenced botanising the rocks and thickets. [Later] We made our way to the sands where we found our party sand hopping to the great delight of the little ones.

We had a look around the town and through the market Hall, and left for home at a little after 7 o’clock. We all enjoyed our visit and had a beautiful day there. We got home safely; Alfie had a good sleep on the way.

We see here the typical pattern of a family day out at the seaside, as familiar now as in the last decade of the 19th Century.

The Shrewsbury Show

Thursday the 20th [August] Sir Henry kindly asked me to go to Shrewsbury Show. He also said I was to take Frances with me and that he would pay our expenses. We got to Shrewsbury by 1.30. We walked up to the show ground in the Quarry where we arrived about 2 o’clock. My first object was to see some coniferous trees, sweet peas, Cactus, dahlias etc which Sir Henry wished me to see and take note of. These were very good and great novelties. I was much pleased to see the collections of fruit, specimen plants, vegetables, herbaceous and other plants.

I was much pleased to see all there was to be seen, and so was Frances. The arrangements were perfect in every way. There were thousands of people there, the papers say over 60,000 and 10,000 the day previous Wednesday Henry, Lady Robertson and party were there. We went down to the Severn which winds halfway around the Quarry. It was not very wide. The ground slopes steeply up from the river on the opposite side to villas on the top, and we saw the Kingsland bridge spanning the river near the Showground. There is a remarkable avenue of elm trees in the Quarry, said to have been planted in one day.

We had tea in a tent, then watch the flying fish, (a fish – like balloon) ascend to a great height and float over the town. There were two gentlemen in it. There was a huge balloon there which went up two or three times some height and was pulled down again by rope. The music was by the Band of the Royal Horse Guards, a sufficient guarantee for its quality. We saw wonderful performance on bicycles by the Selbini troupe. One young lady could do anything on her bicycle. She went round on one foot, on her hands, and even on one wheel; making but little use of her hands. The Blondin Donkey performance by the brothers Griffiths was very amusing and clever. The donkey was a man in donkey skin. The Eugenes displayed marvellous agility on the high trapeze.

The streets of the town were decorated, and thronged with people. We had a slight mishap at the station before we left, for Frances had a memorandum book picked from her pocket by a man who was captured in the act by a detective. This scamp thought he had something of value. We had to go to the superintendent’s office to identify the book and give our name and address. The train was kept waiting for us until we were ready. We had been very careful all day without pockets and watches. We got home by the last train, and with the exception of the pocket picking, we highly enjoyed our outing.

The range of amusements seems typical of those available in the expansive late Victorian era, but as we see, there was accompanying crime. The police detective service seems to have been well trained to cope with such large public events.

1895 Of This and That

Thomas in later life from his newspaper obituary

I have now been transcribing and researching Thomas’ journals for more than 15 years. It has been possible to keep going because of the sheer variety and interest that his jottings present. I usually concentrate these posts on a single issue, but perhaps it is time to record some edited extracts from a six month period to demonstrate the range of interests and events he chose to record.

NEWSPAPER COLUMNIST Friday, March 1. Mr Woodall very kindly sent me gratis a volume of Bye-Gones for the years 1893–4. He has now sent me three volumes, representing six years. All my own contributions to the Oswestry Advertiser are reprinted in Bye-Gones. I am very pleased to have the copies.

                           

WEATHER REPORTER March Wednesday the sixth. The ice still unbroken on Bala Lake and the reservoir. The snow is now confined to hollows, sides of roads and fences where it is of great depth in many places. Saturday the 16th. We walked to Bodwenni Gate. It was very pleasant, very clear road almost all the way and the birds singing. Great snow wreaths in many places.

FATHER Palm Sunday (the seventh)  Henry, Carrie and little Alfred with me over Palé hill.  It was fine and sunny. Alfred walked well and was pleased to go. Saw the Ring Ouzel. Good Friday. The whole family of us over Palé hill, and very enjoyable it was. Great snow wreaths on the hills, and a yard deep at the little farm of Bwlchysafen at an altitude of 1054 feet.

GEOLOGIST On Wednesday the 17th. I had a visit from Mr Lake of Cambridge University and his friend Mr Groom from Herefordshire. They had luncheon and tea with us and spent most of the time inspecting my fossils.  Both are keen geologists and we had a pleasant time together. They enjoyed the visit and left by the 4.6 train.

Fossil material collected by Thomas from the collection in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge.

FRIEND Thomas had befriended Thomas Mellard Reade as a fellow geologist, (see previous post) but in bereavement Reade chose to stay near to his friend Ruddy. Monday the 29th Frances and I met my friend Mr. Mellard Reade and his stepdaughter, Miss Taylor at the station.  They came to spend a week at the Derfel to recruit their health, because Mrs Reade died the previous week. They were pleased to see us and we walked with them as far as the village. Wednesday, 1 May. I went over Palé hill with Mr Reade. We had an interesting ramble. Thursday the second. Mr Reade, Miss Taylor and I went to Sarnau, then on to Caeranucha and home by Bethel lane. It was very fine all the way. Saturday the 4th. I went to Sirior with Mr Reade. We examined some rather interesting glacial deposits and boulders. I had tea him at the Derfel where he lodges. Monday the 6th. Mr Reade and Miss Taylor returned home.  They had very fine weather and much enjoyed their visit.

EMPLOYEE Monday the sixth [May]. Lady Robertson was safely delivered of her fourth daughter at 7:30 am.  Both going on well.

Monday the 20th. Sir Henry and Col Burton [ Sir Henry’s brother in law] wished to see my collection of birds’ eggs.  Col Burton knows much about them. He said my collection is very good and of much interest.

The Staircase Hall, Palé

NEIGHBOUR. Saturday the 25th. I went after tea as far as Garnedd to see the old farmer. I found him in a very weak state and not likely to live long. He was very pleased to see me, and I was very sorry to see him in such a weak state. We have been dealing in potatoes now for over 20 years.

LOCAL EVENTS Tuesday the 28th Frances and I at Corwen where we spent most of the day after sale of furniture at Colomendy where the late Dowager Mrs Price of Rhiwlas lived for over 20 years. The articles were rather ancient, for the old lady was very saving body.  Colomendy is a curious old place and house and gardens are much out of repair. It was very warm. I bid for a carpet and got it, and finished with that. Mr Owen of the White Lion Hotel kindly left it at Bryntirion here for me. We came home by the last train.

HUSBAND From their Geologically themed honeymoon onwards Frances Harriet seems to have been content to share her husband’s hobbies. Saturday the eighth.  Frances and I went to Bala in the afternoon.  We went along the side of the lake to Fachdeiliog boathouse.  I searched for a sedge warbler’s nest there, but only found an empty whitethroat’s.  I picked up two or three flint flakes by the lake on my return.

GUIDE. Thomas was always willing to act as guide to anyone who sought his instruction. Wednesday the 12th The Revd James Gracie came here on his bicycle from Bala College in the afternoon.  I took him around the gardens, and after tea I guided him onto the top of Palé hill. The mountains were very clear, so I was able to show him Snowdon, Moelwyn, etc. I also showed him Moel Fammau.  He was much pleased with the views, for he never saw Snowdon before.  After supper he returned on his bicycle at 9 o’clock.

EXPERT Thomas was widely consulted as a horticultural expert. Thursday the 13th. I went by request to Bala College to see the grounds and give advice about the trees and shrubs. Principal Edwards, Prof Williams, and Mr Gracie went around with me. The Principal and Mr Williams were very nice and chatty all the time.  Mr. Gracie came to the station to see me off.

PARENT Francis took the children in the evening to Bala to be photographed in a group.

CHESTER SOCIETY FOR NATURAL SCIENCE Wednesday the 26th. Frances and Henry went to Arenig station to see Mrs Evans Jones. I was to have gone too, to act as one of the leaders to the members of the Chester Society of Natural Science, but as the excavation was a failure, I stayed at home.  It was hot and hazy all day with thunder far away; not a good day for top of Arenig.

ORNITHOLOGIST Saturday the 29th.[June] Henry and I went to see the young cuckoo for the last time; it was almost ready to fly. Sunday the 30th. Henry and I along the railway as far as Garth Goch.  We found the nest of a shrike with three eggs and a whinchats with five eggs, all fresh.

Sunday the seventh. We all went in the evening to see the swans and their cygnet on the river near Dolygadfa.  The cygnet is much grown. It got onto its mother’s back for a time.  We came home by the village.

POLITICAL COMMENTATOR. The General Election is now over,  and the result has been a surprise to all concerned. The Conservatives have made a clean sweep of the Liberals, for they got into power with a majority of 152. There has not been such an election for many years. Many of the Liberal leaders have been defeated; even Sir W Harcourt, Mr Morley, Mr Shaw  Lefevre, etc.  The Welsh Radicals are quite dejected over it.  They thought to disestablish the Church in Wales, but now it seems afar.

GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH. Monday the fifth. Bank holiday. My old friend Mr A.C.Nicholson of Oswestry and his brother paid us visit.  We had them to luncheon and tea etc.  I have been for some time arranging and naming parcels of fossil material from Gloppa, Old Oswestry and Sweeny for him and also for him and Mr. Cobbold of Church Stretton.  The Church Stretton material consists of fossil Beds 1 to 2 inches each in thickness which have been found in an igneous rock; this igneous rock has been for a time passed off as Precambrian by two or three geologists. I find the fossils to belong to the base of the Caradoc series and the igneous rock to be a vassicular ash.  I have named the fossils and made a report of the whole.

The Nicholsons and I spent most of our time in the fruit room packing the specimens to take home and examining and discussing my fossils.  We spent a very interesting afternoon together.  The fossils from Sweeny near Oswestry are from Boulder Clay; the fossils being of Llandeilo age. They occur in a black shale, rather soft and I found the Lingulella lepis common in it.  This fossil has not been found south of the Berwyns, so that it is of  much interest. My friends left by the 8.30

A page from Thomas’ Commonplace book – from the handwriting, written in older age.

Ice on Bala Lake

Thames Frost Fair early 19th Century

Thomas kept precise and unfailing records of the weather, but in February 1895 there was much to report. His temperature records are, of course in Fahrenheit.

Friday the 22nd some severe frost during the week–20° on the 18th, 11° on the 19th, 13° on the 20th, 15° on the 21st, 19 ½° on this the 22nd.  Frances, the children and myself have had colds for three weeks; they have left us now. We have not been at church for several Sundays.

Saturday the 23rd. Frances, Francie, Carrie, Millie, and myself went to Bala by the 3.16 train to see the lake frozen over.  It was a strange sight to see such an extent of water frozen over– say between three and 4 miles in length, and three quarters of a mile in width.  We stood for a few minutes on the bank at the North East end of it to view the scene. There were many people on it some skating, some walking about, and a large party playing at hockey on skates.  The snow covered the slopes of the surrounding hills, which  made it look very wintry. But at the time it was rather pleasant, for there was a slight thaw. The scene reminded one of a fair or suchlike. It was so very strange to see the smooth expanse of level ground where I have often seen wild waves rolling along before the winds.  We met Henry on the ice and we all walked about for about an hour. The little ones were sliding part of the time. The ice seems to be very solid and quite strong enough for any ordinary weight. I found a hole broken through it in one place and the ice was about 4 inches in thickness. It averages six or 9 inches over most of it. It is a rough ice, much spotted with white specks and has huge cracks all over it.  There were fewer people there today than usual owing to it being market day at Bala.  I met several people I knew such as Mr Evans, Master of the Grammar School, Mr. Gracie, Mr Owen of the White Lion Hotel etc. and Mr Owen told me he drove over the lower end of the lake on Thursday in his dogcart and a tandem. He zigzagged it afterwards towards Eryl Aran and back again to the lower end.  He, the tandem and people were photographed on the ice. 

This is quite extraordinary as there had been a fatality on the frozen lake on February 19th, reported in at least one newspaper. From the Montgomeryshire Express, Tuesday 19th February 1895:

 Nevertheless, the local population, including the Ruddy Family, seemed undaunted: Several people have skated and walked all the way to the upper end of the lake, and bicycles are frequently running over the ice. There was much of the lake frozen over in January 1881, and in the winter of 18 60–61 too, that there has not been such ice on it as it presents since the winter of 1854–55.  That was the time of the Crimean war. I am told by Mr Peter Jones of Bryntirion that he was taken across the lake that Winter from near Llangower to Bala.  There was a very deep snow that winter and it covered the ground for weeks.

There is not much ice on the Dee, but the river Tryweryn was frozen over from near Rhiwlas to the junction.

We were all very pleased to be on the ice for we may never see such a scene again. We were about three quarters of a mile from the east shore of it.  I never saw such an extent of ice before; and Frances has hardly ever been on any frozen water.

Henry went right across it twice and back on Wednesday afternoon.

Despite Thomas’ report that photographs were taken, I have been unable to find one online. Instead I give you one of my favourite pictures!

Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Lock by Sir Henry Raeburn (about 1784)

Raeburn painted his Skating Minister 100 years before the Bala skaters had fun on the ice.

Friendships in Geology 1894

St Nicholas Church Blundellsands, the area laid out by Thomas Mellard Reade

Although the major all-consuming interest in Geology which had marked Thomas’ early and middle years had somewhat given way to family concerns, and an ever widening interest in a number of natural history and historical/archaeological topics, in 1894, his fifty second year, Thomas continued to increase his circle of friendships with amateur geologists. His collection of fossils seems to have continued to be on permanent display in the ‘Fruit Room’, and callers both local and from further away visited to view them. Such visitors were usually also treated to a viewing of Thomas’ other collections, dried botanical species, birds’ eggs (alas!), coins and archaeological artefacts, many of which were brought to him by interested local to be added to the collections. Sir Henry Robertson seems to have been pleased to bring his guests to view the unusual and unexpected display.

There is little or no mention in the journals of the 1990’s of the Chester Society for Natural Science and its President, Professor Thomas McKenny Hughes, the researches around the identification of the Silurian strata of the Bala having been largely resolved, and the Society and its related Scientific Associations locally having moved on in their interests. Some of the members of the Chester Society who had most encouraged Thomas were elderly. His particular friend, George Shrubsole had died in July 1893.

However, it is clear that Thomas was in correspondence with a number of amateur geologists, probably because he had access to the Journal of the Geological Association – although he does not mention this point. I have already referred to his friendship with and assistance to A.C. Nicholson of Oswestry, whose paper on glacial drift inspired Thomas’ own researches in the local area.

In February 1894 we read for the first time of his meeting with Mr. Mellard Reade: Monday the 12th I had a visit from Mr. Mellard Reade of Blundellsands near Liverpool.  Are he was accompanied by his son Mr. Alleyn Reade.  They have been staying at the White Lion Bala since Friday evening. I have known Mr Reade for some years by his papers on Glacial Geology but this is the first time for me to meet him to speak to. Both got here by 9.35 train, and got here soon after. We first had a chat about geology and geologist friends, and then went to the fruit room to see my fossils which he so much desired to see.  After seeing the fossils for some time we went to Brynselwrn to see the glacial striae and sections of the gravel terraces on the railway and at Glandwynant.  We saw a large moraine below Palé Mill and got here again by a quarter to one.

Thomas Mellard Reade was an interesting character with multiple interests and abilities. He seems to have stood at the intersect between the professional and amateur status. As an engineer and architect he designed and planned the area of Blundellsands, part of the Crosby area (see the photograph of the church above, which was consecrated in 1874). It is notable that Mellard Reade shared the interest of Ruddy himself and Ruddy’s other geologist friend, A. C. Nicholson in glacial boulder drift. Nicholson investigation and published paper concentrates on an area of Shropshire; Mellard Reades’s on Lancashire and Cheshire, whilst Ruddy’s incomplete and unpublished researches would have filled in an adjoining westerly area.

Thomas Mellard Reade –
Photograph from his papers held at Liverpool University

An abstract of Reade’s obituary from the publication Nature gives a summary of Reade’s interests and accomplishments.

By April 1894 we can see that the friendship between Reade and Ruddy was deepening beyond their mutual geological interests, as Reade asks Ruddy to assist his family visiting the area: Thursday the 26th.  We had Mrs Reade and her daughter Miss Taylor to tea.  They are staying at the Derfel with another daughter of Mrs Reade – Miss Mary Reade.  Mr. Reade is my geologist friend from Blundellsands; he wrote to me to say that he would be pleased if I would call on his daughters at the Derfel and assist them in any way I could.  Mrs Reade came afterwards.  Miss Reade devoted all her time to sketching so that she did not come to tea. I showed them the gardens and fossils after tea and we had a short walk in the grounds. Mrs Reade said that her husband would be angry with her if she did not come to see the fossils.  Mr. Reade married a widow and there are eight children in all.  They are nice people.

By the next month, Mr. Reade was visiting in pursuit of Thomas’s local glacial geology, bringing his son:

I spent the evening with Mr Reade and his son. We chatted about glacial geology and Boulders etc.  We planned to have a day in the Hirnant valley on the following day.

I met Mr Reade and his son at the station and we went to Bala by the 9.10 train.  We had a waggonette at the White Lion Hotel to take us to the head of the Hirnant Valley.  We found boulders in abundance at Rhosygwaliau, mostly from Arenig.  Found one Aran boulder at Penygarth, where we found some of the striae (glacial) between the lake and PenyGarth to be W by S, those on the Rhosygwaliau side were W by 10° N. Altitude at Penygarth 700 feet.

We found a stray Arenig boulder here and there until we got to Aberhirnant, but not one after that all the way to the county boundary and beyond on the Vyrnwy side.  I found three or four fossiliferous stones immediately on each side of the county boundary.  They are from the Bala Limestone and must have been carried by land ice, either from Craig yr Ogof or Pen-cefn-coch.  Both places on the high ground along the county boundary to the west of the head of the Hirnant. The absence of boulders was a curious fact, and it was what I thought it would be the case after my experience up the side of another feeder of the Hirnant – Nant cwm hesgen. 

Altitude above sea level at the county boundary, 1660 feet by barometer, and at Aberhirnant 775 ft.  It was 1015 feet where are the road crosses the stream at Moel Dinas, opposite Cwm yr aethnen. [ SH 95228 30015 -Ed.]

The Hirnant Valley

Mr Reade was to continue in friendship with Thomas over the following years, sharing both geological interests and family concerns.

A Curious International Encounter

A dancing bear. Image via Wikimedia commons

Anyone believing that mid-Wales was a remote and scarcely visited area in the 19th century would be surprised by Thomas’ diary, as a remarkable number of people of great diversity seem to have passed the road leading to Palé Hall. In reading the following account, please note the difference in outlook of Thomas’ time and our own in the matter of animal cruelty.

March 1894. I took Alfred with me in the spring cart to Tyddynllan. It was very fine and sunny. We passed three three men, 3 women, several children, two brown bears and the monkey when going and returning.  They were sitting by the roadside as we went and walking along the road as we returned. [Tyddynllan was an estate near Corwen which seems at this time to have been in the hands of the Robertson family. it is now an upmarket restaurant.]

All of us went to the bridge in the evening to see the strange travellers.  They were halting at the bridge.  The men were pretty reasonable, but the women and children were impudent beggars; each of them asked us for “a few pence”.  I returned with Francie, Carrie and Millie to the encampment on the island by the bridge with some food and clothing for them, for which they were very thankful. They could speak but little English, and that very imperfectly, so I asked the leader if he could speak French, this he could speak very well and related to to his travels to me in French.  He said he was from Constantinople, that the two grown-up men were his sons and the women were the wives of his sons and self.  They had travelled most of Europe with their bears.  The bears were from the Balkans and the monkey (an ape) from Saigon.

It is impressive that Thomas had kept his grasp of French learned initially in the Bothy as an apprentice at Minto, and honed during his time studying horticulture in France in 1865-6. Perhaps he was glad of an opportunity to use it again.

The bears were having their supper of bread when we went; he said they fed them on bread, for meat would make them savage.  After one of the bears was fed they made him dance for the children to the music of a tambourine.  The elderly man was much pleased to have me speaking French with him. He said he said that they intended going to Bala, Aberystwyth, Cardiff, Brighton etc. They were evidently a hardy lot, for the women and children were barefooted and bareheaded, and one had a baby only three weeks old. They left Liverpool a fortnight ago. My French has got rather rusty, but we got on pretty well. The children were much pleased to see the bears and monkey.

Thursday the 29th. The bears and monkey here and performed at the Hall, and afterwards one of the bears danced in front of our parlour window to please Alfred who said when he saw the three performing at the Hall “Well Alfie never saw anything like that before”.  One of the sons who danced the bear here could speak French with me.  The travellers caused a great sensation in the village and here. The larger of the two bears stood quite erect when dancing and danced in a circle from right to left, that is going against the sun. He ended by placing his right fore paw on the crown of his head.  The smaller bear would not keep upright and was more clumsy at his performance.  The monkey was an ugly brute; it walked it sometimes on all fours, sometimes on three, and sometimes on 2 feet, went on 2 feet it was much like a boy walking.

And after the excitement, all returned to normal: Saturday the 31st.  It came on a shower of rain in the afternoon, but I went in the evening to the top of Palé Hill.

Marriages 1894

What happens when a biographer suddenly comes across an event in the life of their subject which they find difficult to understand, and in some senses seems quite shocking? It is impossible to understand the context and circumstances of the event, or to interrogate an objective contemporary bystander. I have been acquainting myself with Thomas Ruddy through his journals since I inherited them in 2005, finding much to admire in his character and endeavours in gardening, geology, and as a family man. I rarely read ahead in the journals; following the ‘story’ being a major factor in keeping on with the task of transcription.

So it was that I came to April 1894, and a grand wedding in the Robertson family, when the youngest daughter of the late Henry Robertson, sometime MP, and the sister of Sir Henry Robertson, Henrietta, married, at the somewhat advanced age of 36, the clergyman Eustace King. There seems to have been much rejoicing in the Ruddy family at this happy event. On Friday the 6th of April, Miss Robertson presented Thomas and Frances with a gift:

Miss Robertson gave me a handsome photo frame for two photos. One has a photo of the Rev. Eustace King (her intended husband) and she is going to send me one of her own soon to put in the empty frame. It was very kind of her to give it and we appreciate her kindness.

A gift was given in return on the 12th April: Presented Miss Robertson with a wool handmade hearthrug as a wedding present. We had it made for her. She was much pleased with it, said it would be a nice remembrance, and that as it would suit the pile carpet that we could not have given her anything more acceptable. She took it away with her.

And then comes the shock: Saturday the 14th Tom (his eldest son) married at Southsea much against our wish.

Seemingly entirely unmoved, Thomas continues to enthuse about the wedding of Miss Robertson: Wednesday the 18th Miss Robertson married with the Rev. Eustace King at the church here. It passed off nicely – see account in Oswestry Advertiser. The report is my composition, but Lady Robertson gave me the list of presents to copy. See above.

Thomas continues: I had plenty of white and other flowers for the occasion. Mr King told me he liked the way I decorated the church. I had a beautiful Spirea as a table plant to put in the Queens silver bowl the cake was decorated with Deutzia.

I have now transcribed as far as the end of 1895, and there is no further mention of Thomas’ eldest son, Thomas Alexander, Tom. This is particularly heartbreaking as records show that in February, Tom’s wife Elizabeth Ann, nee Roberts gave birth to a son who lived just three days. They called him Thomas Alexander.

Despite this family rift, Thomas Alexander did well for himself. My future transcription will show whether the rift was ever healed. Tom and Elizabeth did finally have a son, Reginald Harold, born in 1900 and a daughter Beatrice Rosamund born in 1903. I have been in touch with a descendant of Reginald.

It is tempting to quote L.P. Hartley: ‘The past is another country, they do things differently there.’ However, family feuds and rifts still exist, and how is it possible for an onlooker to understand what happens in the human psyche?

1893 'Science Under Difficulties'

‘Science under difficulties’ was the name given by Thomas to an expedition he undertook with his son Henry on the evening of the 30th September 1893. Henry was then 10 years and 11 months old. It was past mid afternoon before the pair set out, and they returned just before 8.00 pm, soaked through, and in the dark. It was a journey of, in my estimation, at least ten miles.

Saturday the 30th  Henry and I left home at a 3:45 o’clock for Cae Howel lane. We had  heavy showers on the way, but went on to the gate leading to Maeshir at Bwlch y Fenni.  It cleared off when there and had every appearance of keeping fine and as I wished to hunt for boulders on the Aberhirnant side, we pushed on along the mountain road leading to Llangynog over Trwmysarn.   I imagine Thomas’ main purpose was his new research on Glacial Drift.

Thomas’ notebook on boulder dispersion

Thomas describes the journey: We found one Arenig boulder near Cae Howel at an altitude above the sea of 1200 feet and again a boulder of the Aran ash where the road gets close to the brook of Nant-cwm-hesgen.  That was all the boulders we found in our ramble. There were none in the bed of the upper part of the Brook all along the roadside all the way to the county boundary at Trwn-y-sarn. 

The slopes of Foel Carn Sian Llwyd Photo © Dave Corby (cc-by-sa/2.0)

It got almost dark at the county boundary and rained cruelly with a breeze of wind. We crossed the moorland on the south side of the hill called Moel-cwm-sarn-llwyd. It was a rough and tumble walk all the way to the Berwyn Road from Bala to Llangynog. We had to pick our way over bogs, through wet heather or rushes in semi- darkness until we got down to Palé Mountain stables, and most thankful we were to reach them in safety. It rained heavily all the way.

When we got to the road we were drenched from the knees downwards and our boots full of water. It didn’t rain much all the way home, but it was weary journey. It was science under difficulties. Henry followed without a murmur all through the worst part of it, and was glad he was with me. We got home a few minutes before 8 o’clock, and after a change of clothes and a wash we felt quite comfortable and enjoyed our supper. Neither of us will forget our experience over the rough bit of mountain between the two roads. Luckily we had waterproof coats.

Thomas instructed the children of his second family well in natural history. He probably had more leisure to do this with the five children born to Frances Harriet, and she too, encouraged by her expert botanist uncle, William Pamplin, was enthusiastic about outdoor pursuits. Only two of their children, the second family, married, and only Henry Ernest had a single child, a son Denys, the inheritor of Thomas’ journals before me.

Henry Ernest, a clergyman, inherited his father’s love of natural science, concentrating on astronomy, an interest which he passed on to Denys. Here they are in about 1940 in the garden of Braunston Rectory with their very impressive telescope.

Walking with the Family 1892-3

a general map of the area around Palé Hall

By the spring of 1892 Thomas was the father of eight children; by his first marriage Tom (23) William (20) Mary Emily (19) all at work and living away from home; by his second marriage Henry (10) Frances H ‘Francie’ (8) Caroline E ‘Carrie’ (7) Amelia A ‘Millie’ (5) and Alfred (2).

A significant new element in the journal is the number and frequency of walks recorded, which match the diminution of the expeditions with various natural history societies by Thomas alone. On almost all, Thomas records finding plants, birds, trees and other natural phenomena.  It must have been a pleasant and instructive pastime for the children to have such a rich source of tutoring in natural history.

A charming aspect of these recorded walks is that they are undertaken by different combinations of companions. Sometimes Thomas walks just with his wife, occasionally the whole younger family is involved, often Thomas walks with just one of his young children and when the older siblings come home, they are involved as well.  This suggests that the children were allowed to choose whether to go on the expeditions, concentrated as they are at the weekends, rather than being made to participate.  The opportunity to do this, leaving some young children at home, was possible as the Ruddy family always had a live in general servant. Here is a selection from 1892-3

April 1892

Sunday the 10th Henry and I went along the railway to rock opposite Crogen. (Tanycraig) and returned home by Caepant.  We had a pleasant walk.  Thursday the 14th Tom came home for his holidays. Little ones much excited over his coming.  Good Friday. Tom and I went for a ramble round Fronheulog in the evening. 

May 1892

Sunday, May 1st Francis and I took the children to about half a mile beyond Brynmelyn.  It was very pleasant.  Saturday the 7th Carrie and I had a ramble over Palé Hill, and went as far as Brynselwrn Ffrith.  Sunday the 8th Francie and I went along the railway to Tanygraig rock. We flushed corncrake twice on the way, and found a kestrel’s nest with four eggs, and a wood pigeon’s nest on the ground on a ledge of rock under the shelter of the tree root.  It was built in the usual way. We saw a water hen’s nest with five eggs and a newly hatched chicken in the nest.  Francie very pleased to see the little bird. I observed the tree pipit for the first time.  We returned home by the village. Francie much pleased with her walk.

July 1892

Saturday the 23rd Frances and I took Francie and Carrie by the 4 o’clock train to Llandrillo. On our arrival there, we walked along the railway to a plantation about 2 miles away. I picked up the Medicago luplulina on the way, and so a few other things of interest.  On getting to the plantation, which is on the side of the line, Francis and little ones rested until I went to examine two or three specimens of the noble Silver Fir, which Sir Henry wished me to examine.  From the plantation we went up and narrow lane to the road, and got out about halfway between Plasynfardre and Hendor bridge. We had a pleasant walk to the village and from there to the station.  We met Mr and Mrs Vernon on our way to the station. We had a pleasant ramble, and the girls were pleased to go.

September 1892

Sunday the fourth. Tom, Francie, Carrie Millie, and I went as far as Glandwynant, and then up through the wood to Bwlch Hannerob, and home by the path passing the old quarry. It was a pleasant little ramble.

Feb 1893

Saturday the 11th Francis and I went after tea to near Ty Tanygraig at the western outlet of the tunnel. We much enjoyed the walk, and it was a change to be able to get a walk. Sunday the 19th. Francie and I went after tea as far as Tydyninco; we had to return home as it came on to rain rather heavily.

March 1893

Sunday the 19th Carrie and I went along the Bala road after tea to Bodwenni and returned by Bodwenni pillar and Earlswood, getting down by Fronheulog.  We had a pleasant ramble. We could see the tops of Aran and Arenig covered with great stripes of snow.

Thomas and Carrie’s walk

Sunday the 26th [March]  after tea we took the children along with the Bala Road as far as the little roadside pool beyond Bodweni.  On arriving there we crossed a little meadow to the riverside where the children ran about for a short time, much to their delight.  Two herons flew over us, on screaming several times. Both birds went eastwards, presumably to Rûg near Corwen where there is a heronry. We had it chilly coming home.

April 1893. Sunday the 9th Francie, Milly and I went past  Brynmeredeth and over the hill by Fedwfoullan home.  A Very nice walk.   Saturday the 22nd  Frances, Francie and I went after tea to Sarnau bog.  It was very fine and we enjoyed the walk. We heard the sedge warbler.  Sunday the 23rd We all went in the evening to near the tunnel and sat in a field overlooking the bog near the railway. It was very pleasant. Observed a whitethroat. Friday the 28th Frances and I went by the riverside near Tyndol to see a swan sitting and home by roads. Found a tree creepers nest with six eggs.  Saturday the 29th Henry and I went as far as Crogen.  Found several nests. We thought of meeting Tom coming on his bicycle.  Saturday, 6 May.  Francis and I took Henry and Millie with us by the 4 o’clock train to Llandrillo we walked back past Llanwercillan and got into the old lane near Llechwercilan where we had a pleasant walk to Tynyfach and Tynycoed.  We did not see any interesting bird, but I got a good fossil (Orthoceras vagans) at Tynycoed quarry.  We returned by train from Llandrillo. It was a pleasant outing.  Observed many black-headed gulls from the train.

Sunday the seventh. Very fine; 12 hours sunshine. I got Henry and Francie to go with me in the evening along the railway and that past Llanerch Sirior, etc.  We found a stockdove’s nest and several other nests; the whitethroat, chiffchaff etc.  We also found a blackbird’s nest made on the ground in the wood.  It was placed on fragments of stone without any protection at the foot of an naked hazel bush and the bird sitting on four eggs.

Whit Sunday. Tom, Francie and I walked to Bala in the evening and came home by the mail train. It was pleasant to walk. Willy went on the hill with the others.

By 1893 Alfred aged 3 was able to walk a fair distance. Tuesday 30th May Francis & I took Alfred with us past Tydninco and round by the riverside home. Alfred to did enjoy his outing and was very amusing.  Tydyninco was a small propert owned by Sir H.B. Robertson.  Its gardens were looked after by staff originally from Palé, and directed in their work by Thomas.

Sunday the 11th  Francie and I went past Brynmelyn into the Meadows and got to the yellow waterlily pool, where the Nuphar advena [yellow pond lilly – ed.] grows. We found the nest of the water hen with 7 eggs, saw the Lily in flower. We came home along the riverside all the way; saw shelves in the river, the limpet and Linnaea.  It was a pleasant walk, for it was cool by the river.

Bicycle! While the rest of the family were still on foot, Tom had acquired a fashionable new possession -a bicycle. Perhaps the model was the 1886 Swift Safety Bicycle

Tom arrived by bicycle on Saturday 17th Monday the 19th Tom up, and had breakfast at 3am, and started off by 3.30 it was a beautiful morning, the birds singing and pleasant for travelling; he left in fine spirits.

Tuesday the 20th had a letter from Tom to say he was going through Llandrillo as the church clock struck 4 , and through Corwen as the clock [174] chimed 4.30; and got to Llangollen by .10.30, Ruabon by 6.20, and arrived at Southsea by 7 o’clock. He had a pleasant journey, the air being sweet with the honeysuckle in the hedges in many places. It was rather with warm between Llangollen and Ruabon as there is a stiff pull up their part of the way.

And finally, an expedition for the whole family, at the end of June 1893. Sunday the 25th. After tea, we all went on to the Bala road and along the riverside opposite Palé until we got onto the Bala road again near Pantyffynon.  The children did enjoy sitting on a prostrate tree by the river.  We picked up the Linnaea I observed in the river at Dolygadfa, also the freshwater limpet and the cockle, (Spaerium lacustre).  We saw several of the little bearded fish called the loach in Scotland. [176] It is of the genus Cobites and a few of the fish called miller’s thumb. Alfred had walked all the way there and back. He soon fell asleep when put to bed.